Fundamental changes of agriculture and food production are inevitable. Providing food for an increasing population will be a great challenge that coincides with the pressure to reduce negative environmental impacts of conventional agriculture. It appears unlikely that conventional agriculture alone can cope with the huge challenges ahead. Industrial biotechnology holds the key to provide humanity with nutritious, safe and healthy food together with chemicals and innovative materials while minimizing resource inputs. Biotechnological manufacturing of acellular products for food and materials has already been piloted but the full profit of cellular agriculture is just beginning to emerge. Cultured meat is a promising technology for animal-based proteins but still needs further development. The concept of plant cells as food offers a very attractive alternative to obtain healthy, protein-rich and nutritionally balanced food raw material. Moreover, cultured microbes can be processed into a wide range of biosynthetic materials. A better control over structural properties will be increasingly important in all cultured cell applications.
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