The results of the study of Partanen et al (2016) indicate potential for carbohydrate-containing protein concentrates as structure-formers in food matrices. The critical components, protein and pectin, in the complex raw material could be enzymatically tailored for structuring of multi-phase systems or to increase the viscosity for physical stabilization. Aqueous dispersion properties of a protein concentrate obtained from turnip rapeseed (Brassica rapa) press cake were investigated. Protein content of the press cake was enriched from 35.9% to 45.8% by defatting using supercritical-CO2 extraction and partial removal of fibre-rich hull particles using milling and air classification. The protein denaturation degree and the solubility in the prepared protein concentrate were compared with a commercial canola protein isolate.
Despite partial loss of the protein native structure, the rapeseed protein concentrate showed favorable properties when compared to a native canola protein isolate, including lighter and more stable color, and comparable protein solubility in neutral conditions. The impurities, especially pectin, were suggested to be responsible for the lower net charge of the protein concentrate compared to that of the protein isolate. To improve the dispersion stability of the protein concentrate, enzymatic crosslinking with transglutaminase and microfluidization at 1850 bars were applied. Improvement in colloidal stability was observed in all samples upon microfluidization. Microfluidization resulted in the formation of rod-like aggregates formed mainly of the insoluble cell wall polysaccharides glued together with proteins as imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Pre-treatment with transglutaminase resulted in different distributions of the components in the rods and further improved dispersion stability against sedimentation. Heat treatment caused compaction of the structures.
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Partanen R., Sibakov J., Rommi K., Hakala T., Holopainen-Mantila U., Lahtinen P., Ercili-Cura D., Lantto R. "Dispersion stability of non-refined turnip rapeseed (Brassica rapa) protein concentrate: Impact of thermal, mechanical and enzymatic treatments" Food Bioprod Process 2016, vol 99. doi:10.1016/j.fbp.2016.03.006
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