Ma et al. investigated the possibility to improve the suitability of sodium caseinate as emulsifier in o/w emulsions at broad range of pH values. Proteins, such as casein and whey protein, are widely used as emulsifiers in various industrial application areas, e.g. food products, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. A drawback with proteins as emulsifiers is their low solubility and low net charge at pH values close to their isoelectric points (pI). As a result of this, their emulsifying activity in that pH range is considerably reduced. In the case of caseins with an average isoelectric point around 4.5, reduction of its emulsifying activity at pH values 4-5 has been a severe limitation in its applications in the acidic pH range.