Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds are rich in proteins (about 30% proteins, rich in lysine), vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre but also bioactive compounds, such as antioxidants, phenols and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Nevertheless, secondary metabolites that may exert an anti-nutritional effect are also present. The effects of air classification and lactic acid bacteria fermentation on the reduction of anti-nutritional factors (vicine and convicine, trypsin inhibitor activity, condensed tannins and phytic acid) and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of faba bean flour were studied by Coda et al (2015).
The anti-nutritional compounds were separated mostly to the fine protein-rich fraction. Fermentation caused the decrease of vicine and convicine contents by more than 91% and significantly reduced trypsin inhibitor activity and condensed tannins (by more than 40% in the protein-rich fraction). No significant (P > 0.05) variation was observed for total phenols and phytic acid content. Fermentation increased the amount of FAA (free amino acids), especially of the essential amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility and significantly lowered the hydrolysis index. This work showed that the combination of air classification and fermentation improved nutritional functionality of faba bean flour which could be utilized in various food applications.
For more information:
Coda, R., Melama, L., Rizzello CG., Curiel JA., Sibakov J., Holopainen, U., Pulkkinen, M., Sozer, N. 2015, “Effect of air classification and fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-133328 on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour nutritional properties”, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol 193, pp. 34-42.
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