Due to varying chemical compositions of flours and applied baking processes, breads form a food group with heterogeneous structures. Chemical composition, baking process and structure of breads influence their degradation in digestion leading to different postprandial responses. Rye bread has a very different structure as compared to wheat bread, and rye breads are known to induce lower postprandial insulin responses than wheat bread. The aim of the study of Pentikäinen et al (2014) was to find out potential differences in mastication and initial starch hydrolysis rate of rye and wheat breads.
Three rye breads and wheat bread were masticated by fifteen participants and the process was monitored using electromyography. The particle size distribution and initial in vitro starch hydrolysis of the bread boluses were analysed. The study showed that structural properties effect mastication process. Rye breads were degraded to smaller particles than wheat bread during mastication. There was a trend (p=0.098) towards slower in vitro starch hydrolysis rate in rye bread boluses than in wheat bread boluses. The results indicate that the digestion process of rye breads differs from that of wheat bread already in the early phase of digestion.
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Pentikäinen, S., Sozer, N., Närväinen, J., Ylätalo, S., Teppola, P., Jurvelin, J., Holopainen-Mantila, U., Törrönen, R., Aura, A. & Poutanen, K. 2014, "Effects of wheat and rye bread structure on mastication process and bolus properties", Food Research International, vol. 66 pp. 356-364.
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